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infrastructure

infrastructure is basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterprise. it can be generally defined as the set of interconnected structural elements that provide framework supporting an entire structure of development.

the term typically refers to the technical structures that support a society, such as roads, water supply, sewers, electrical grids, telecommunications, and so forth, and can be defined as the physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential to enable, sustain, or enhance societal living conditions.

most infrastructure is designed by engineers, urbanists or architects. generally road and rail transport networks, as well as water and waste management infrastructure are designed by civil engineers, electrical power and lighting networks are designed by power engineers and electrical engineers, and telecommunications, computing and monitoring networks are designed by systems engineers.

in the case of urban infrastructure, the general layout of roads, sidewalks and public places may sometimes be designed by urbanists or architects, although the detailed design will still be performed by civil engineers. if a building is required, it is designed by an architect, and if an industrial or processing plant is required, it may be designed by industrial engineer or a process engineer.

our full range of engineering services includes;

  • earthwork planning and design
    • foundation design
    • excavation and filling balance
    • preparing grading plans
  • pavement
    • concrete pavements
    • asphalt pavements
    • analysis
    • design
  • storm water
    • preparing hydrological database
    • grading
    • channel and ditches
    • culverts
  • water storage systems
  • sanitary sewer systems
    • pipe network
    • o manholes
  • fire
  • preparing site plan coordinated with structural, mechanical and electrical design

in terms of engineering tasks, the design and construction management process usually follows these steps:

preliminary studies

  • determine existing and future traffic loads, determine existing capacity, and estimate the existing and future standards of service
  • conduct a preliminary survey and obtain information from existing air photos, maps, and plans
  • identify possible conflicts with other assets or topographical features
  • perform environmental impact studies:
    • o evaluate the impact on the human environment (noise pollution, odors, electromagnetic, interference, etc)
    • evaluate the impact on the natural environment (disturbance of natural ecosystems)
    • evaluate the possible presence of contaminated soils;
  • given various time horizons, standards of service, environmental impacts, and conflicts with existing structures or terrain, propose various preliminary designs
  • estimate the costs of the various designs, and make recommendations

detailed survey

  • perform a detailed survey of the construction site
  • obtain "as built" drawings of existing infrastructure
  • dig exploratory pits where required to survey underground infrastructure
  • perform a geotechnical survey to determine the bearing capacity of soils and rock
  • perform soil sampling and testing to estimate nature, degree and extent of soil contamination

detailed engineering

  • prepare detailed plans and technical specifications
  • prepare a detailed bill of materials
  • prepare a detailed cost estimate
  • establish a general work schedule

authorization

  • obtain authorization from environmental and other regulatory agencies
  • obtain authorization from any owners or operators of assets affected by the work
  • inform emergency services, and prepare contingency plans in case of emergencies

tendering

  • prepare administrative clauses and other tendering documents
  • organize and announce a call for tenders
  • answer contractor questions and issue addenda during the tendering process
  • receive and analyse tenders, and make a recommendation to the owner

construction supervision

  • once the construction contract has been signed between the owner and the general contractor, all authorisations have been obtained, and all pre-construction submittals have been received from the general contractor, the construction supervisor issues an "order to begin construction"
  • regularly schedule meetings and obtain contact information for the general contractor (gc) and all interested parties
  • obtain a detailed work schedule and list of subcontractors from the gc
  • obtain detailed traffic diversion and emergency plans from the gc
  • obtain proof of certification, insurance and bonds
  • examine shop drawings submitted by the gc
  • receive reports from the materials quality control lab
  • when required, review change requests from the gc, and issue construction directives and change orders
  • follow work progress and authorize partial payments
  • when substantially completed, inspect the work and prepare a list of deficiencies
  • supervise testing and commissioning
  • verify that all operating and maintenance manuals, as well as warranties, are complete
  • prepare "as built" drawings